Uzbekistan

History

The territory of Uzbekistan had been inhabited since the 2nd millennium B.C. That can be proved by the archeological discovery of tools and monuments in Fergana, Tashkent, Bukhara, Khorezm, and Samarkand.
The first civilizations appeared on the territory of modern Uzbekistan were Sogdiana, Bactriana and Khorezm. The territories of these states became a part of Persian Empire in the 6th century B.C., and since that time becoming a part of Persia during the centuries. In fact, the Persian culture is preserved in Uzbekistan even today.
In 327 B.C. Alexander the Great invaded Sodgiana and Bactriana, and got married to Roxana, a daughter of Sogdiana’s local governor. The opposition to the invaders was fierce, making Alexander’s army stay in the region. 
In the 13th century, Timur (1336-1405), well-known in the West as Tamerlan, resettled the Mongols and built the empire. Tamerlan had a great success during his military campaigns. He inflicted a defeat to the troops of Osman sultan Bayazid I. it was the only war in history, when one Turkic state made a war on the other one. Tamerlan built a capital of empire in Samarkand.

Uzbekistan became independent in 1991. Declaration of independence was proclaimed on August 31, 1991. The Independence Day is celebrated on September 1.

Territory and climate

Location: Republic of Uzbekistan is mostly situated between two rivers Amudarya and Syrdarya, and has 447,400 km2. The extension of territory from the west to the east is 1425 km, from the north to the south is 930 km. The territory borders on the north-east Kazakhstan, east and south-east Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, west Turkmenistan, south Afghanistan. The total length of state borders is 62221 km.
Coordinates: 41º00′ of the northern latitude, 64º00 of the eastern longitude.
Borders:
Total extension – 6221 km.

The length of borders on Afghanistan is 137 km, Kazakhstan – 2203 km, Kyrgyzstan – 1099 km, Tajikistan -1161 km, Turkmenistan – 1621 km.

Relief

According to the natural geographical conditions Uzbekistan is one of the most favourable regions of Central Asia. The territory of Uzbekistan is unique combination of flat and mountainous relief.

The main part of Uzbekistan are plains. One of the most important plain is the Turanplain. There are the spurs of Tyan-Shan and Pamir in the east and north-east, and the highest point of the country (4643 m). There is one of the biggest deserts of the world Kizilkum in the central part of Uzbekistan.

Geological structure and minerals

The bowels of country contain coal and brown coal, natural gas, gold, copper and tungsten; the deposits of oil are opened as well.
Climate

The climate of Uzbekistan is sharply continental. There is a sharp amplitude in the night and daily, summer and winter temperatures. The difference in temperature is quite considerable, depending on the season. The temperature in January is -6 ºC, and in July +32 ºC. The average annual quantity of precipitation falling on the plain is 120-200 mm, in mountainous regions – 1000 mm. The quantity of precipitation is not considerable, that’s why the agriculture mainly depends on irrigation.

Inner waters

The biggest rivers are Amudarya and Syrdarya. The total length of Amudarya is 1437 km, Syrdarya – 2137 km. the majority of Uzbekistan’s rivers dry up in their stream, only Amudarya and Syrdarya flow into the Aral sae. There are some big artificial lakes in Uzbekistan, such as Chardarya reservoir.

Soil and plants

The desert plants prevail on the plains, in the mountains prevail the steppes, forests and mountainous meadows.

Animals

The fauna of the country is quite various: you can meet an antelope and a lizard (1,5 m long) in the desert. There is a snow panther and are kinds of mountainous goats in the mountains.